AGE AT FIRST CALVING OF TWO TEMPERATE BREEDS OF CATTLE IN LARGE UP COUNTRY FARM
W.M.S.P. Weerasinghe1, B.V.Sc., D.V.S. de S. Gamage1, B.Sc. A.D.N. Chandrasiri1, B.V.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., R.M.S. Malkanthi1 and W.P.D.K. Fernando2, B.Sc. (Agri.)
1 Animal Breeding & Reproductive Physiology Division,Veterinary Research Institute, Gannoruwa
2 Faculty of Agriculture & Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP)
Increasing the profit margin of a unit of milk is an important issue in dairy production for the producer. The profit margin for milk is directly linked to the productivity of an individual cow. However, productivity mainly depends on the reproductive efficiency, where the age at first calving (AFC) is an important factor.
The AFCs of 177 Jersey and 216 Friesian cows born in two upcountry large scale State farms from 1996 to 2003 were analyzed, and found to be 38.1 ± 5.1 months and 43.0 ± 7.3 months respectively. Moreover, AFC of Jerseys ranged from 23.3 – 49.5 months and in Friesians, AFCs ranged from 24.2 – 64.2 months. The low variability of the AFC of Jersey is an indication of the better adaptability of the breed to the local management conditions.
These data were further analyzed to see the effect of breed and year of birth of cow on AFC, where Fvalues of 62.48 (P<0.0001) and 3.76 (P=0.0006) were observed respectively. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) indicated a significantly low AFC in year 1996 in Jerseys. In Friesians, low AFCs were observed from year 2000. This may be due to environmental and improved management conditions in respective years and require further analysis to ascertain this fact.
A better growing environment from birth will have an effect on reducing the AFC. In temperate breeds, the standard AFC should be around 24 months. Delay in AFC will cause a serious economic loss in terms of milk and replacement stock. Therefore, attempts should be made to achieve these standards. In a selection program, AFC could be included as a selection criterion along with pedigree information.
IDENTIFICATION OF SEROVAS OF LEPTOSPIRA AMONG BUFFALOES AND BUFFALOE FARMERS IN HOMAGAMA VETERINARY DIVISION IN SRI LANKA
M.G. Thammitiyagodage1, B.V.Sc., H.M.R. Kumari Dissanayake2 , B.V.Sc.,P. Chandrasiri1, M.B.B.S., Diploma (Microbiology), M.D. (Microbiology),S. Puvanendiran3, B.V.Sc. and S. Jayathunge1
1. Medical Research Institute, Department of Health, Colombo
2. Government Veterinary Office, Deptartment of Animal Production & Health, Homagama
3. Veterinary Research Institute, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya
Leptospirosis is a world wide zoonotic disease and is a common disease in tropical countries like Sri Lanka. Western province of Sri Lanka was reported as an endemic area. Epidemiological data reveals that a large number of human cases were reported from Homagama veterinary division during the years 2007 and 2008. In order to identify the pathogenic strains common to animal and human population in this area, ninety-eight blood samples from buffaloes and 16 blood samples from respective buffaloe farmers were collected. Serum was separated and examined by Microscopic Agglutinating Test (MAT) against patock strain to detect the Leptospiral antibodies. Strains were identified against ten serovas of pathogenic strain of Leptospira antigens using the MAT. Out of 98 samples tested, 38 % were positive (titer >100) for antibodies against Leptospira patock strain and 7% of the buffalo population had titers less than hundred. According to the serova specific MAT, Leptospira hardjo-bovis (54%) was found to bethe commonest type while 29% were positive for Leptospira gem and 14 % were positive for Leptospira pyrogen. Of the population 4% were positive for both Leptospira pyrogen and L. hardjo-bovis. Out of sixteen serum samples collected from buffalo farmers, five samples were positive for Leptospira non-specific antibodies against patock strain. In four samples titer was equivalent to hundred. Only in one sample the titer was 400. This sample was identified as Leptospira pyrogen by serova specific MAT. This indicates that in addition to rats, which is considered a common carrier of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, buffaloes could be a possible source of Leptospiral infection in paddy farmers as well as in dairy workers in Sri Lanka.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS ON THE ECONOMICS OF SWINE FARMING IN SRI LANKA
K.A.C.H.A. Kothalawala1 B.V.Sc., M.Sc., M.V.Sc., E.R.K. Perera2, B.Sc., Ph.D, H.W. Piyadasa3, B.V.Sc., M.Sc. and H.A.W.M.R.U.W. K. Udugama4
1, 4. Division of Livestock Planning and Economics, Department of Animal Production and Health, Getambe
2. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
3. Ministry of Livestock Development, St. Micheal Road, Colombo 03
The existing pig production farms in Sri Lanka vary in herd size, breeds, feeding systems and market channels which results in varying profit margins. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of feeding system on the growth performance of pigs and thereby economics of swine farming. Data on growth parameters (birth weight, weaning weight and slaughter weight, back fat thickness), income and expenditure of swine farming were analyzed and studied in three main feeding systems such as concentrate feeding, mixed byproduct feeding and swill feeding in large scale pig farms. The results revealed that the feeding system did not affect the birth weight or weaning weight, but influenced the slaughter weight significantly (p<0.05). Concentrate feeding resulted in higher slaughter weight (p<0.05) and low back fat thickness compared to swill and mixed byproduct feeding. Concentrate feeding was most expensive (Rs. 86.11/kg pork), while swill feeding was least expensive (Rs.42.28/kg pork). The concentrate feeding group received highest grade (A) and there by highest price (Rs.110/kg) for the product, while swill feeding group received the lowest price (Rs.90/kg). The cost of production of pork (Rs. 50.09/kg) and grade of the product of mixed feeding system were medium. Therefore, mixed feeding system yielded the highest profit of Rs.49.91/ kg. Back fat thickness of pork (major determinant of market price) was also within the required standards in the mixed feeding group. Although the pork of concentrate feeding group had low back fat thickness and fetched a better market price, the profit per kg was remarkably lower due to high cost of feeding. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that under large scale swine farming in Sri Lanka, mixed byproduct feeding system is more profitable compared to swill feeding or concentrate feeding.
BRAIN SPOON TECHNIQUE: A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR THE COLLECTION AND DISPATCH OF BRAIN SAMPLES FOR RABIES DIAGNOSIS
G.S.P. de S. Gunawardena, B.V.Sc., Ph.D
Division of Pathology, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya
In view of the practical problems faced by veterinarians and animal health workers involved in rabies diagnostic work under field conditions, a simple post-mortem technique was developed by which appropriate brain samples can be collected for laboratory diagnosis. Using a specially developed brain spoon, the brain stem including medulla oblongata, pons, obex and parts of the mesencephalon, diencephalons, cerebellum and cerebrum can be collected through the foramen magnum. The main advantage of this spoon technique is that it enables a sufficient quantity of brain tissue to be collected for many laboratory diagnostic tests without opening the cranial cavity.
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