The official journal of The Sri Lanka Veterinary Association
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal (volume: 61)
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Volume - 61
Year - 2014
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Section - A
Original Article
C.P. Wickramasinghe1,  R. Hettiarachchi2  and  U.P.R.M. Pathirana3
1. Veterinary Investigation Centre, Department of Animal Production and Health, Hambantota
2. Division of Animal Health, Department of Animal Production and Health, Peradeniya
3. Livestock Farm, National Livestock Development Board, Ridiyagama

Summary: Black Quarter is one of the major diseases of cattle in Sri Lanka which has been confined to only certain locations in the country. The first outbreak in the Southern Province was detected in Ridiyagama farm in 2010. The cases were limited to buffalo cows in the age of eight to ten years. The casefatality rate was 40% and the prophylactic treatment with Penicillin and Streptomycin was effective in controlling the outbreak. Black quarter vaccination was introduced to this Province thereafter.

J.K.H. Ubeyratne1  and  M.D.N. Jayaweera1
1. Central Veterinary Investigation Center, Veterinary Research Institute, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

SUMMARY: This study describes the lipolytic and proteolytic properties of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria and their potential for the occurrence of spoilage of raw and heat treated milk collected from milk processing centers. More than 50 % and 8.3 % of raw milk samples exceeded the standards in average aerobic mesophilic counts (3.3x106 CFU/ml) and psychrotrophic counts (7.2x103 CFU/ml) respectively and visualize the microbial shift from aerobic mesophilic bacteria towards psychrotrophic microorganisms under cold storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria of mesophilic microflora accounted 70.7 % in pasteurized commercial milk showing the poor hygienic conditions. Spore forming bacilli contamination at primary production continually encountered in heat treated milk due to their survival. Heat resistant psychrotrophic microorganisms (Streptococcus and Bacillus spp.) became a predominant component of microflora of pasteurized and sterilized milk. Risky limits of lipolytic or psychrotrophic bacteria counts were exceeded in 28.6 % of pasteurized commercial milk samples. Among predominant psychrotrophic organisms in pasteurized milk, the mostly found Pseudomonas spp, yeasts and micrococci caused spoilage. Although UHT products are hygienically safe, heat resistant proteinases and lipases could limit the shelf life.

Short Communication
S.J.M.R.R. Samarakoon1,  A. Dangolla2  and  W.M.S.K. Karunarathne1
1. Veterinary Investigation Centre, Department of Animal Production and Health, Badulla, Sri Lanka
2. Dept. of Veterinary Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Science, University of Peradeniya

SUMMARY: Thirty (30) farm units consisting of 358 farmers with 745 cows were investigated for mastitis by clinical examination and California Mastitis Test (CMT). Sterile milk samples (n=221) from clinical mastitis cases and CMT reading > 2 were collected and sent to the laboratory for culture and Antibiotic Sensitivity Test (ABST). Majority (61%) of the farmers owning the animals were from tea estates and 52.2% of them managed their cows intensively. Only 148 farmers (41.3%) had satisfactorily built cow sheds and 69.8% provided cattle feed as concentrate. Most farmers (97.8%) fed their cows during the day and night and 83.8% provided water from the nearby stream Only 41.1% farmers provided their cows with a mineral mixture regularly while 97.5% used artificial insemination for breeding. Farm level total milk production varied from 5-50 litres per day. A total of 469 cows were lactating. Eighteen cows had only clinical mastitis at least in one quarter (3.8%, quarter level prevalence 2.9%), 203 cows (43.3%; quarter level prevalence 26.9%) had only subclinical mastitis at least in one quarter and 29 cows (6.2%) were affected with both clinical and sub clinical mastitis. Mastitis prevalence was highest (67%) in cows with a milk production >5 l/day. Thecommonest bacteria reported in mastitis cases was Staphylococcus aureus (52%) which was sensitive to cloxacillin, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. Isolated Klebsiella (12.7% cases) was sensitive only to enrofloxacin. Other organisms found were E.coli (8.1%), Streptococcus (5.9%), Pasteurella (4.5%), Corynebacterium (4%), and Proteus (2.7%). Isolation of Candida (1.4%) from clinical mastitic dairy cows in this study has never been reported before. Results show that poor knowledge in farmers on health and management of animals and poor shed hygiene, despite the high genetic potential in animals, may have contributed towards reduced milk production in Badulla district.

Section - B
Reports
D.H.A.Subasinghe1
1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Peradeniya

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