The official journal of The Sri Lanka Veterinary Association
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal (volume: 66(2))
Current Issue
Volume - 66(2)
Year - 2019
Download PDF
Select an issue from the archives
Review Article

SUMMARY: Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease that accounts for significant economic losses in the poultry industry around the globe including Sri Lanka.The causative agent is Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in the genus Avibirnavirus ofthe family Birnaviridae. Among the two major serotypes of IBDV, clinical disease  in poultry is caused by serotype 1, which is further classified into three pathotypes, classical virulent, antigenic variant and very virulent. Young chicken of three to six weeks of age are more susceptible for the disease and the clinical signs include exhaustion, prostration, ehydration, watery diarrhoea and ruffled feathers. The virus causes severe damage to lymphocytes in the Bursa of Fabricious of poultry. Consequent immunosuppression increases the susceptibility of the affected chicks to other diseases and cause unresponsiveness to vaccines. In spite of the control measures taken, IBD continues to be a major constraint in the poultry industry. This review extensively discusses the characteristics of the virus, its genome and the functions of each virus coded protein, circulating virus pathotypes and their emergence, host pathogen interactions, pathogenesis, and pathology of the disease. Further, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the epidemiology of IBD in both local and global perspective, the available diagnostic techniques, prevention and control strategies and the challenges encountered in that process. Considering the enormous economic importance of IBD, this review is aimed to benefit the scientific fraternity, veterinary practitioners, veterinary students, researchers and diagnosticians, which will in turn help in the better and effective management and ultimately control of this disease.

Clinical Communication

Summary: Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) grows mainly on the genitals of dogs. When such lesions develop in the vaginal passage, the process of clinical examination, diagnosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response are crucial in veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two-dimensional trans-perineal ultrasonography to monitor the therapeutic response of vincristine sulphate on intravaginal TVT in dogs. Twelve female dogs having lesions confirmed as TVT with cytological evaluation were used. TVT were categorized as multilobular (n=7), solitary (n=5), and heterogeneous (n=12). The maximum transverse diameter of tumour was assessed ultrasonographically while treating with vincristine sulphate 0.025 mg/kg, IV at weekly intervals. Owners were informed about the side effects of chronic vincristine sulphate chemotherapy such as development of pancytopenia, inappetence, and alopecia. Dogs were monitored for such adverse reactions during the study. The average maximum transverse diameter of tumour was 3.05±1.31 cm (range, 1.32 to 5.8 cm) before the treatment. A variation of therapeutic effect on tumour size was observed with trans-perineal ultrasonography. A significant reduction of the lesions was recorded between two to five weeks of the treatment in 11 dogs (P=0.00), with the highest reduction recorded one week after the treatment (P=0.01). Eight dogs showed thickened and hyperechoic foci on the vaginal wall with the highest average thickness of 0.36±0.08 cm after the complete remission of TVT. Based on the results in this study, it could be concluded that trans-perineal ultrasonography is a simple and noninvasive diagnostic modality to characterize and monitor the therapeutic effect of vincristine sulphate in dogs affected with intravaginal TVT in clinical practice.

Original Article

Summary: Resistance to antimicrobials is a worldwide problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Exposure to antimicrobials is commonly attributed to the maintenance of resistance in bacterial populations. Commensals like Escherichia coli (E. coli) can easily acquire and transfer resistance genes. The present study was conducted to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of wild animals. During the period of December 2015 to June 2016, samples were collected from 26 birds, 25 mammals and three reptiles within the Eastern Wildlife Health Region of Sri Lanka, which covers approximately 125,576 hectares. Isolation rates of E. coli and Salmonella from faecal samples were 37.03% (20/54) and 18.51% (10/54) respectively. Nine of the 20 E. coli isolates (45%) were resistant to ampicillin and 7 (35%) to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Two E. coli isolates were resistant to more than 6 antimicrobials tested. All 20 E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin and imipenem and 19 (95%) were susceptible to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. Out of the 10 Salmonella isolates, four were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, while 2 were resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Ten percent resistance was observed against each nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin. Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR, i.e. not susceptible to at least one agent in at least three antimicrobial classes) E. coli and Salmonella were recovered from Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), and Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela). These AMR and MDR patterns indicate a threat to wildlife and the necessity of conducting a detailed study to identify the possible sources of wildlifecontamination.

Summary: A major review of the Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) program at University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka was undertaken under the umbrella of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE; World Organisation for Animal Health) Veterinary Education Twinning Program with the partnership of Massey University, New Zealand. The review process started with widespread consultation amongst the Sri Lankan veterinary profession and other stakeholders to identify areas in which changes were needed to the current competencies of veterinary graduates. The review was undertaken as a formal process of the University of Peradeniya, in alignment with the requirements and expectations of the Sri Lanka Qualifications Framework (SLQF). Content was aligned with the recommendations of the OIE on the competencies of graduating veterinarians and projections of national and global standards for the veterinary profession for at least the next two decades. Pedagogical revision has been based upon current best practices in veterinary medical education worldwide. Revision of clinical teaching has similarly aimed to ensure that graduates are well-equipped to meet the diverse expectations of animal owners in Sri Lanka. It has aimed to increase the scope of clinical teaching by drawing upon the breadth of clinical resources that are available throughout the country. Key changes to the program included the extension of its duration by one academic year in order to allow for a year of uninterrupted clinical teaching, alignment and amalgamation of related material, the introduction of problem-based learning modules, a significant reduction in lecture content with a parallel increase in tutorial and practical contents, elaboration of several courses related to industries that have recently gained improved importance in the country (e.g. equine, aquaculture, poultry), and introduction of several new courses to cover topics that had not been adequately covered previously. Finally, a program-long thread of material relating to the professional, ethical and inter-personal behaviour of veterinarians has been introduced. Presentation of the revised curriculum to the profession in Sri Lanka has been met with a high level of enthusiasm and a willingness to participate in its clinical teaching.