The official journal of The Sri Lanka Veterinary Association
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal (volume: 52 ( 1 & 2 ))
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Volume - 52 ( 1 & 2 )
Year - 2005
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Section - A
Original Article
S.R. Bennett1,  R.L.Quinn1,  S.Teleford1,  S.Rich1,  V.Kulasekera1,  N.Obeysekera2,  J.Collure2,  D. Siriwardana2  and  C.D. Kirihena2
1. Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, Massachusetts 01536, United States
2. Pet Vet Clinic of Colombo, 421/5 Malalasekera Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka

THE PREVALENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CANINE EHRLICHIOSIS IN COLOMBO, SRI LANKA 

S.R. Bennett1 D.V.M, R.L. Quinn1 D.V.M, S. Teleford1 Sc.D, S. Rich1 Ph.D, V. Kulasekera1 B.V.Sc, N. Obeysekera2 B.Sc., B.V.Sc, J. Collure2 B.V.Sc, D. Siriwardana2 B.V.Sc, C.D. Kirihena2 B.V.Sc and G. Fernando2 B.V.Sc

  1. Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Rd, North Grafton, Massachusetts 01536, United States
  2. Pet Vet Clinic of Colombo, 421/5 Malalasekera Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne zoonotic disease that affects domestic and production animals. While E. canis has been documented in Sri Lanka, the presence of other ehrlichia species has not been determined in the canine population.  In developing countries such as Sri Lanka, large populations of stray dogs may be the source of ehrlichia infections to both domestic dogs and humans.  In order to examine the prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis, and to identify unknown species of ehrlichia in Colombo, 57 owned and 15 stray dogs were randomly sampled.  Each dog was evaluated by physical examination, buffy coat analysis, polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing.  Twenty-three dogs were found positive foe ehrlichia by buffy coat analysis.   Twelve dogs were found positive by PCR analysis (8 E. canis, 4 E. phagocytophila, 1 co-infected with  E. canis and E. phagocytophila). Gene sequencing revealed that animals testing positive for E. phagocytophila were actually infected with E. platys.  Based on results, the prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in theColombo region was determined to be 17%. Eighteen percent of the owned dogs and 12% of the stray dogs sampled were found positive for ehrilichia by PCR.  A majority of the PCR positive animals were owned, large breed dogs that showed no clinical signs.  In addition, 75% of these animals could not be diagnosed by buffy coat slide analysis.  Results suggest that diagnostic limitations may prevent accurate diagnosis of ehrlichia, and that subclinically and chronically infected dogs may be reservoirs for ehrlichiosis.  Thus, an important step towards the control of tick-borne diseases inSri Lanka is not only the improvement of diagnostic techniques, but also the development of an effective acaricide that would prevent disease transmission.

 S.L.Vet.J. 2005, 52 (1 & 2A): 1-8

S. Gajanayake1
1. Veterinary Investigation Centre, Welisara

SWINE INDUSTRY IN THE WESTERN PROVINCE: III. BREEDING MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH CARE PRACTICES 

S. Gajanayake, B.Sc (Agri.), M.Sc (Agri) 

Veterinary Investigation Centre, Welisara, Sri Lanka

 Most of the swine farms in the Western province had crosses of Large White, Land race, Duroc and Local breeds and only 5% of the farms had pure Landrace and 7% had pure Large White.  The mostly available crossbred animals in the province were Large White x Landrace (37%), Large white x Duroc (25%) and Large White x Landrace x Duroc (21%).  The average size of litter at birth and the average litter size at weaning was 10.1 and 7.6 respectively.  The mean age at weaning was 7.4 weeks.  The average birth weight and the average weaning weight were 0.93 kg and 9.36 kg respectively.  The mean number of furrowing per sow per year was 1.82 in the province and the average period from farrowing to next service was 3.06 months.  The average age at culling of male and female were 28.9 months and 28.4 months respectively.

Majority (94%) of the piglings in the province were given parenteral iron therapy, treated for worms (98%) and vaccinated against Japanese encephalitis (95%). Fifty four percent of the farms in the province practiced castration.  Seventy three percent of the farms had mortality problems among piglings and there was no guard rail in the furrowing pen in any farm.

When considering disease control aspects, 95% of the animals were vaccinated against Japanese Encephalitis by the state free of charge.  However, farmers have to spend for swine fever vaccination and hence lesser number of animals received this vaccine.

 S.L.Vet.J. 2005, 52 (1 & 2A): 9-13

U.K.I. Ariyaratne1  and  S. Mahalingam1
1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya

DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUSES IN CATTLE CALVES 

U.K.I. Ariyaratne, B.V.Sc and S. Mahalingam, B.V.Sc., Ph.D 

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya

In Sri Lanka, analysis of farm records have shown that neonatal calf diarrhea is one of the most important of diseases afflicting calves less than three months of age.  Major cause on nonbacterial gastroenteritis are the rotaviruses.  Faecal samples collected from 57 cattle calves in the age group under five months of whom fifty one were diarrhoeic and 6 non diarrhoeic but in contact with them were examined for group A rotavirus antigen by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Five of the fifty one samples from diarrhoeic calves were positive for group A rotavirus. Using subgroup specific monoclonal antibodies and by the ELISA four of these five positive were identified as having subgroup I specificity.  The fifth specimen was not examined due to insufficient material. When four of these five strains were examined, using monoclonal antibody directed against G6 and G10 serotypes of group A rotaviruses, one belonged to the G10 serotype, whilst the rest were untypable.

These 57 faecal samples were also examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE).  By PAGE, 4 of 5 group A rotavirus strains showed banding patterns typical of group A rotavirus.  All had the “long” electrophoretic pattern and all banding patterns were identical.  These Sri Lankan strains of calf rotaviruses had electrophoretic patterns similar to the banding patterns obtained with the U. K. positive bovine group A rotavirus reference strain.  This is the first report of detection of group A rotavirus antigen in diarrhoeic cattle calves inSri Lanka.

S.L.Vet.J. 2005, 52 (1 & 2A): 15-18

Section - B
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