The official journal of The Sri Lanka Veterinary Association
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal (volume: 66 (1))
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Volume - 66 (1)
Year - 2019
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Review Article
R.M.C. Deshapriya1,  R. Rahularaj2  and  R.M.S.B.K. Ransinghe3
1. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
2. Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
3. Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Sciences, University of Peradeniya

SUMMARY: Mastitis is the economically most important disease in lactating cows and the prevalence under any management condition is considerably high. It causes economic losses due to reduction of both quantity and quality of milk. The groups of microorganisms causing mastitis are categorized as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma and nocardia. Among the several cow side tests to trace intra-mammary infections (IMI) at early stage, i.e. sub-clinical mastitis (SCM), California Mastitis Test (CMT) is commonly used in which somatic cell count (SCC) is indirectly taken into account. The SCC of milk is an indicator of mammary infections because SCC positively correlates with the severity of infection. The SCC of >200,000 cells/ml is considered to be an indication of IMI. However, SCC in the milk can also vary with some other factors such as breed, age of the cow, stage of lactation, body condition score, etc. A few studies have shown that high SCC in milk affect the composition, organoleptic properties and keeping quality of raw milk and heat treated milk, yoghurts and cheese. One could argue that low SCC milk (sub-clinical mastitis) will not have a significant effect on product quality. But it should be emphasized that the natural infection occurs with various types of microorganisms that can precipitate product defects despite the low SCC. Also, attention must be paid to the bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) rather than individual animal SCC. The quality of raw milk collected from different parts of the country is reported to be low with high bacteria counts mainly due to unhygienic milking and field practices. Milk quality directly influences the income of the small scale milk producers which inturn affects the sustainable dairy production. In Sri Lanka the majority of dairy farmers are small scale producers and they practice minimum milk hygiene practices compared to medium and large scale producers. Therefore, it is essential to make them aware of hygienic milking practices and implement milk quality based payments (MQBP) with added premium and penalties for the existing milk price, with the objective of encouraging clean milk production.

Original Article
W.R. Bandula Kumara1,  N.O.D.M. Karunarathna1  and  D.D.N. de Silva1
1. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka

SUMMARY: Estimation of the size of the thyroid gland is considered to be important for diagnosis of several pathologic conditions in animals including dogs. Two-dimensional ultrasonography is used as a noninvasive simple method for determination of the size of thyroid gland. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship among the dimensions of the thyroid gland with that of the associated anatomic landmarks of clinically normal dogs using ultrasonography. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 15 mixed breed dogs using an ultrasound scanner (MyLab30vet, Esaote, Genoa, Italy) with a linear-array transducer (Esaote LA 522, Esaote, Genoa, Italy).The maximal diameter and the length of the thyroid lobe were compared with that of the diameter of the common carotid artery and the trachea. The correlation between each thyroid parameter and the dimensions of the anatomic landmarks were assessed using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient test. According to the results, a significant linear correlation was observed between the maximum diameter of the thyroid lobe and the diameter of common carotid artery (P = 0.02, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.188). The coefficient of determinations (R2) for the maximum diameter of the thyroid lobe with that of common carotid artery diameter was 0.367, indicating that the strengths of the association were weak. The mean ratio between the maximum thyroid lobe diameter and the common carotid artery diameter was 1.74 ± 0.40 (range 1.11 - 2.43). However, there was no significant dimensional relationship with other selected anatomic landmarks. On the basis of the data obtained in this study, calculating the ratio between the maximum thyroid lobe diameter and the diameter of common carotid artery by using two-dimensional ultrasonography will be a useful and simple method for evaluating the size of the thyroid gland in dogs in clinical practice.

G.D.B.N. Kulasooriya1,  M.K.U.T. Amarasiri1,  A. M. H. Abeykoon1  and  R.S. Kalupahana1
1. Department of Veterinary Public Health & Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka

SUMMARY: Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common foodborne zoonotic bacteria with a significant risk of transmission through poultry and related products. Chicken is the most commonly available and consumed meat type in Sri Lanka, hence this study aimed to identify the occurrence of those microorganisms in retail chicken products that may be posing a direct risk to consumers. A total of 124 chicken samples of chilled or frozen raw meat, sausages, meat balls, and cooked chicken curries were purchased from retail outlets in Kandy municipality area. The presence of above organisms and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli isolates were tested utilizing standard methods. All types of samples except chicken curries were contaminated with Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli to different extents. Frequencies of contamination of sausages and meat balls with Salmonella and Campylobacter were lower than the contamination with E. coli. A higher proportion of loose sausages were positive for E. coli compared to packaged sausages. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli isolates indicated that all were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin but susceptible to gentamicin, imipenem and amikacin. The study reinforces the importance of adequate cooking of chicken meat and meat products.

Clinical Communication
K. Nizanantha1,  W.M.N.K. Jayathilake1,  M.W.I.N.B. Makuloluwa1,  W.M.T.D. Rathnakumara1  and  W.M.P.B. Weerasinghe1
1. Department of Farm Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, 2Sri Lanka Veterinary Research Institute, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

SUMMARY: A modified fistulation technique described by Hecker in 1969 was adopted for the first time in Sri Lanka in sheep, in order to establish a cannulated rumen fistula. Pre-operative procedures included administration of tetanus toxoid 14 days prior to surgery, withholding feed and water for twenty-four hours, Vitamin B-complex and antibiotic injections on the day prior to surgery, and preparation of the left flank region for surgery. Immediately prior to the surgery parenteral analgesic injection was administered and left para-vertebral nerve block was performed. The rumen wall was exteriorized through a laparotomy incision and a metal clamp was applied. Simple interrupted sutures were placed using nylon through the skin, rumen wall and the clamp. After 7 – 9 days the exteriorized rumen wall sloughed off leaving a fistula. A tight rubber cannula was inserted through the fistula and the cannula was closed with a ring and stopper. The antibiotic and analgesic were repeated post-operatively for three days. The cannulated animals were used for a one-year research project and the animals were clinically normal throughout the project.

S.P. Rathnayake1,  R.A.M.K. Rathnayake1  and  D.D.N. de Silva2
1. Department of Animal Production and Health, Northern Province
2. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya

SUMMARY: This communication describes the reconstruction of mandibular lip avulsion in a two-year old cross-bred male cat using a tissue adhesive with the placement of horizontal mattress sutures. The cat was presented with mandibular avulsion two days after a road traffic accident. A few temporary sutures to secure the lip in place and oral antibiotics had been given by another veterinarian. However, at the time of presentation it was apparent that the sutures had been removed by the cat. As the prehension was difficult, the food intake was reported to be less than it used to be after the accident. Monomeric n-butyl-2- cyanoacrylate (Surgibond) and horizontal mattress sutures with 2/0 polydioxanone were applied under general anaesthesia for reconstruction. Two weeks after the intervention the patient fully recovered and started consuming food in the usual manner without any post-surgical complications.